* At a time when decisionmakers are considering how best to support renewable energy, this book examines the regulatory framework, providing a platform for development and an invaluable research text* The current global position is analyzed alongside the underlying renewable energy policies, using case studies from different countries over the past thirty years* International experts evaluate the data, outline prospects, and propose recommendations for uptake of renewable energy within a limited time frameRenewable energy has enjoyed relatively good growth in recent years, in particular photovoltaic (PV) and wind; but it will be difficult to sustain such rates of diffusion on a global basis. A more complete transition to renewable energy is required on a demanding timescale set by climate change and fossil fuel depletion. This book analyzes strategies for promoting renewable energy within the context of a rapid energy transition. Having described the global context in detail, covering oil and gas depletion, climate change, third world development, and the potential for renewable energy, the authors evaluate support mechanisms at national and international levels, offering readers a clear understanding of the regulatory framework and an opportunity to promote renewable energy effectively.The Contributors: J?rg Schindler and Werner Zittel, Ludwig B?hlkow-Systemtechnik, Germany, Ian Rowlands, University of Waterloo, Canada, Giulio Volpi, WWF Europe, Kristian Hvitfelt Nielsen, Aarhus University, Denmark, Staffan Jacobsson, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Peter Connor, University of Warwick, U.K., Ole Langniss, Centre of Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research in Baden-W?rttemberg, Germany, David Elliott, The Open University, U.K., Frede Hvelplund, Aalborg University, Denmark
This book investigates how a North African solar thermal power plant can be set up under the guidance of European investors (e.g. the Desertec Concept) as a Public Private Partnership (PPP). It outlines the importance of early awareness of contract-related risks, investment risks and dispute settlement, arguing that commercial and investment arbitration are the best tools for settling disputes regarding a large-scale solar thermal project. Furthermore, by comparing institutional and ad hoc arbitration, it shows that the former offers highly suitable support. The latest developments in the area of investment arbitration under EU law and the general acceptance of arbitration in Islamic countries are examined in particular. This book also demonstrates that a solar thermal power plant must meet certain requirements to be considered an investment. These requirements are examined in relation to Art. 25 of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes Convention (ICSID Convention) and respective case law. Overall, the book offers valuable guidelines for investors and host states on how to successfully implement large-scale solar thermal projects.
Covers the latest practices, challenges and theoretical advancements in the domain of balancing economic efficiency and operation risk mitigation This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncertainty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities to improve market efficiency, via transmission topology control, transmission switching, transmission outage scheduling, and advanced transmission technologies. Besides the state-of-the-art review and discussion on the domain of balancing economic efficiency and operation risk mitigation, this book: * Describes a new approach for mass market demand response management, and introduces new criteria to improve system performance with large scale variable generation additions * Reviews mathematic models and solution methods of SCUC to help address challenges posed by increased operational uncertainties with high-penetration of renewable resources * Presents a planning framework to account for the value of operational flexibility in transmission planning and to provide market mechanism for risk sharing Power Grid Operations in a Market Environment: Economic Efficiency and Risk Mitigation is a timely reference for power engineers and researchers, electricity market traders and analysts, and market designers. Hong Chen, PhD, is a Senior Consultant at PJM Interconnection in Pennsylvania, USA, and was a Principal Analyst in electricity market design and development at ISO New England, USA. Dr. Chen received her PhD in electrical and computer engineering, ME in power systems, and BE in power systems. She has more than 20 years of experience within the power industry and has been active author, editor and committee leader in IEEE activities. Dr. Chen is the current chair of Power System Operation, Planning and Economics committee in the Power and Energy Society of IEEE.
With this newly revised sixth edition of THE SOLAR SYSTEM, author Mike Seeds' goal is to help you use astronomy to understand science--and use science to understand what we are. Fascinating and engaging, this text will help you answer two fundamental questions: What are we? How do we know? Crafting a story about astronomy, Seeds shows you how to ask questions to gradually puzzle out the beautiful secrets of the physical world and our place in it. This edition addresses the newest developments and latest discoveries in the exciting study of astronomy, including new data on Jupiter's ring system; new observations of the shapes of stars; new evidence of dark energy, quasars, and galaxy collisions; and a look inside supernova explosions. And for students looking for an interactive alternative to the print text, the FOUNDATIONS OF ASTRONOMY Online Version is the ideal solution. The Online Version gives you Web-based access to a digital version of Michael A. Seeds' best-selling astronomy textbook containing the complete text of THE SOLAR SYSTEM. If your instructor is using the Enhanced WebAssig(r) online homework management system, the Online Version includes access to your homework assignments as well, allowing you to navigate quickly between your homework and the text. Visit www.webassign.net/seeds to learn more.
Mark lives in two worlds. In one, the real world, his family moves him in the middle of his freshman year to a new school. Mark has no friends and is taunted by bullies as the newbee. He senses his troubles are just starting and that one day he will have to face up. Pug won't let him alone. He accidentally stumbles into the second, a fantasy world, when he walks into his grandparents study to look for a book. He sees an ivory carving of a polar bear on the bookshelf and picks it up, The bear grows cold in his hand and Mark realizes he is no longer in the study but standing in a dense forest somewhere in central Alaska. He turns quickly when he hears the angry growl of a huge grizzly not twenty feet away. The bear's claws reflect in the flickering light as Mark reaches for... This is a glimpse of one of many adventures Mark faces each time he holds the ivory bear. In others he joins Inuit seal hunters in the dense fog on Bristol Bay, is attacked by a polar bear on the Arctic ice pack and is stranded and alone on what some say is a haunted island in the Aleutian chain of southern Alaska. Share these and other adventures with Mark as his story unfolds.
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