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* At a time when decisionmakers are considering how best to support renewable energy, this book examines the regulatory framework, providing a platform for development and an invaluable research text* The current global position is analyzed alongside the underlying renewable energy policies, using case studies from different countries over the past thirty years* International experts evaluate the data, outline prospects, and propose recommendations for uptake of renewable energy within a limited time frameRenewable energy has enjoyed relatively good growth in recent years, in particular photovoltaic (PV) and wind; but it will be difficult to sustain such rates of diffusion on a global basis. A more complete transition to renewable energy is required on a demanding timescale set by climate change and fossil fuel depletion. This book analyzes strategies for promoting renewable energy within the context of a rapid energy transition. Having described the global context in detail, covering oil and gas depletion, climate change, third world development, and the potential for renewable energy, the authors evaluate support mechanisms at national and international levels, offering readers a clear understanding of the regulatory framework and an opportunity to promote renewable energy effectively.The Contributors: J?rg Schindler and Werner Zittel, Ludwig B?hlkow-Systemtechnik, Germany, Ian Rowlands, University of Waterloo, Canada, Giulio Volpi, WWF Europe, Kristian Hvitfelt Nielsen, Aarhus University, Denmark, Staffan Jacobsson, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Peter Connor, University of Warwick, U.K., Ole Langniss, Centre of Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research in Baden-W?rttemberg, Germany, David Elliott, The Open University, U.K., Frede Hvelplund, Aalborg University, Denmark
Unlike more technical texts stuffed with formulae and theories, this book explains in plain English how power is created and replaces formulae with everyday examples and easy-to-understand illustrations.
Covers the latest practices, challenges and theoretical advancements in the domain of balancing economic efficiency and operation risk mitigation This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncertainty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities to improve market efficiency, via transmission topology control, transmission switching, transmission outage scheduling, and advanced transmission technologies. Besides the state-of-the-art review and discussion on the domain of balancing economic efficiency and operation risk mitigation, this book: * Describes a new approach for mass market demand response management, and introduces new criteria to improve system performance with large scale variable generation additions * Reviews mathematic models and solution methods of SCUC to help address challenges posed by increased operational uncertainties with high-penetration of renewable resources * Presents a planning framework to account for the value of operational flexibility in transmission planning and to provide market mechanism for risk sharing Power Grid Operations in a Market Environment: Economic Efficiency and Risk Mitigation is a timely reference for power engineers and researchers, electricity market traders and analysts, and market designers. Hong Chen, PhD, is a Senior Consultant at PJM Interconnection in Pennsylvania, USA, and was a Principal Analyst in electricity market design and development at ISO New England, USA. Dr. Chen received her PhD in electrical and computer engineering, ME in power systems, and BE in power systems. She has more than 20 years of experience within the power industry and has been active author, editor and committee leader in IEEE activities. Dr. Chen is the current chair of Power System Operation, Planning and Economics committee in the Power and Energy Society of IEEE.
1. 1. Short History of Solar Radio Astronomy Since its birth in the forties of our century, solar radio astronomy has grown into an extensive scientific branch comprising a number of quite different topics covering technical sciences, astrophysics, plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, and other disciplines. Historically, the story of radio astronomy goes back to the times of James Clerk Maxwell, whose well known phenomenological electromagnetic field equations have become the basis of present-time radio physics. As a direct consequence of these equations, Maxwell was able to prognosticate the existence of radio waves which fifteen years later were experimentally detected by the famous work of Heinrich Hertz (1887/88). However, all attempts to detect radio waves from cosmic objects failed until 1932, which was mainly due to the early stage of development of receiving techniques and the as yet missing knowledge of the existence of a screening ionosphere (which was detected in 1925). Therefore, famous inventors like Thomas Edison and A. E. Kennelly, as well as Sir Oliver Lodge, were unsuccessful in receiving any radio emission from the Sun or other extraterrestrial sources. Another hindering point was that nobody could a priori expect that solar radio emission should have something to do with solar activity so that unfortunately by chance some experiments were carried out just at periods of low solar activity. This was also why Karl Guthe Jansky at the birth of radio astronomy detected galactic radio waves but no emission from the Sun.
A thriving port, a frontier base for the lords of Gower and a multi-cultural urban community, the south Wales town of Swansea was an important centre in the Middle Ages, at a nexus of multiple identities, cultural practices and configurations of power. As the principal town of the Marcher lordship of Gower and seat of the Marcher lord's rule, Swansea was a site of contested authority, colonial control and complex interactions - and collisions - between different cultures, languages and traditions. Swansea also features in the miracle collection prepared for the canonisation of Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford (d. 1282), as the setting for the intriguing case of the hanging and strange revival of the Welsh rebel, William Cragh. Taking medieval Swansea and Wales as its starting point, this volume brings into focus questions of place, power, identity and belief, bringing together inter-disciplinary perspectives which span History, Literary Studies and Geography / Archaeology, and engaging with current debates in the fields of medieval frontier studies, urban history, manuscript studies and hagiography.
This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Medieval History.
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